In order to describe the core job characteristics that drive employee motivation, organizational psychologists Greg Oldham and J. Richard Hackman proposed the Job Characteristics Model (JCM) in 1975. Task identity, which connects workers' efforts to visible outcomes, emerged as a key feature of their job characteristics theory.
What Exactly Is Task Identity?
Task identity, according to Greg Oldham and J. Richard Hackman's Job Characteristics Theory, is the degree to which a person's core job dimensions directly connect to final work outcomes.
High and Low Task Identity Examples
Someone can have either a high or low task identity. Here are several examples:
High task identity: Simply put, a person with a high task identity can see their work through to completion. Consider a luthier who builds an entire guitar from scratch, including the body and neck, staining, applying a wood finish, and adding hardware and strings. Because they see the guitar through to completion, that luthier has a high task identity. Their efforts yield a distinct piece of work.
Low task identity: A person with a low task identity is unable to see how their work affects the final product. Compare a solo luthier to a technician on a guitar assembly line. The assembly line worker only inserts metal frets into guitar necks, after which the necks are transferred to another section of the factory where they are transformed into complete guitars. Because of the nature of that worker's job design, they are unable to enjoy the high task identity of a solo luthier.
Importance of Task Identity
Task identity can have a significant impact on an employee's perceived meaningfulness. Many employees regard task identity as a form of job enrichment and job satisfaction because they enjoy seeing how their efforts manifest as finished products.
Task identity is also a component of what Oldham and Hackman refer to as a motivating potential score in human resource management (MPS). The MPS formula assigns numerical values to a worker's task identity, task significance (the extent to which they see their work assisting others), skill variety (the extent to which their job allows them to develop and showcase different skills), autonomy (their level of independence within the work environment), and feedback (the degree to which they receive actionable information about their job performance and quality of work). All of these factors are considered in the MPS equation and serve as predictors of employee engagement and well-being.
How to Achieve Task Identity
The key to achieving task identity in the workplace is to find ways to show team members how their work contributes to the final product. There are several approaches to achieving this goal, including:
Holistic work redesign: Low task identity in a workforce can lead to low employee engagement, absenteeism, and diminished psychological states. Corporate executives and team leaders must take bold steps to restore workplace morale in such dire circumstances. This could entail a complete reimagining of employee roles in order to improve task identity, as well as task significance, skill variety, autonomy, and feedback.
Job rotations: When team members have a diverse set of skills, managers can rotate them into different roles within a manufacturing process. Workers should be given opportunities to contribute near the end of the process on a regular basis so that they can see the team's output in its final form.
Strong communication: While it may not make sense for all co-workers to stick with a product until it is finished, they can still stay informed of team success if the company maintains open lines of communication. Internal office communications that provide project status updates and highlight team success stories can be prioritized by project managers and human resources officers.
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